The Union Territory of Pondicherry (recently renamed as Puducherry)
4 coastal regions
viz. - Pondicherry, Karaikal, Mahe and Yanam. The area of
Pondicherry is scattered over
three different states
in the country – Pondicherry, the capital of the UT is in Tami Nadu,
Karaikal region is embedded in the Nagappattinam and Tiruvarur
District of Tamil Nadu, Mahe in the west coast of Kerala
and Yanam is in Andhra Pradesh.
Pondicherry, the capital of the UT, also a port city, is located
162 kms south of Chennai, the capital of Tamil Nadu and 22 kms north
of Cuddalore, the head quarter town of South Arcot district in Tamil
Nadu. Pondicherry is surrounded by Bay of Bengal in the east and by
South Arcot district of Tamil Nadu from other three sides.
The unique spiritual charm of the place is enhanced by the fact
that it was the religious home.
The ancient history of Pondicherry is associated with
the revered sage of the south. Excavations near Pondicherry have
revealed the existence of a Roman settlement some 2000 years ago. It
was also the site of many battles between the
British, Dutch and French
and was also the capital of French India.
(or Pondicherry) was a part of the Pallava
kingdom of Kanchipuram
in the fourth century AD. During the next few centuries Pondicherry
was continued to be under the control of several dynasties of the
south. In the tenth century A.D. the Cholas of Thanjavur
ruled the region for over 300 years but later on it was replaced by
Till 1638, Pondicherry came under various rulers like the Muslim
rulers of the North; the Vijayanagar Empire and then the
Sultan of Bijapur came to rule over Gingee.
The 17th century marked the beginning of colonial era
in India. The French East India Company set up its trading
centre at Puducherry in 1673. This outpost eventually
became the chief French settlement in
Dutch and British trading companies also wanted trade with India.
Wars raged between these European countries and spilled over into
the Indian subcontinent. The Dutch captured Pondicherry in 1693 but
returned it to France by the Treaty of Ryswick in 1699.
The French acquired Mahe in the 1720s, Yanam in
1731, and Karaikal in 1738. During the Anglo-French wars
(1742-1763), Pondicherry changed hands frequently. On January 16,
1761, the British captured Puducherry from the French, but the
Treaty of Paris (1763) returned the city to the French. It was taken
again by the British in 1793 amid the Wars of the French Revolution,
but once again returned to France in 1814. When the British gained
control of the whole of India in the late 1850s, they allowed the
French to retain their settlements in the country. Pondicherry,
Mahe, Yanam, Karaikal and Chandernagar remained a part of French
India until 1954.
But after India gained her independence in 1947, an agreement
between France and India in 1948 agreed to an election in France's
Indian possessions to choose their political future. On 1st November
1954, Pondicherry was transferred to India. A treaty of Cessation
(together with Karaikal, Mahe and Yanam) was signed on May 28, 1956.
It became a Union Territory to be administered by the President of
India in 1962 under the 14th Amendment of the Indian Constitution.
Once a French colony, Pondicherry still today has a few French
families living there and French is an important language. The
French spirit can be observed in the very layout of the township.
The streets, buildings, ornamental gardens, hotels and restaurants,
everywhere the French influence still persist prominently.
Pondicherry (renamed as Puducherry), a union territory of India is
located on the Malabar Coast, at 162 kms south of Chennai, the
capital of Tamil Nadu. It is surrounded by Bay of Bengal on east and
South Arcot district of Tamil Nadu on other three sides. It has an
average height of 0 m from mean sea level. The city is protected by
a 2 km long seawall, constructed by the French in 1735. This seawall
protects the land from direct onslaught of waves by rows of granite
boulders and is reinforced every year to stop the erosion.